The concept of ADS where safety and transmutation were considered was developed in the late eighties in the Brookhaven National Laboratory. However, the first conceptual molten-salt thermal energy amplifier and transmutation system was proposed in Los Alamos in C.
Accelerator Transmutation of Waste
In a group from CERN led by Carlo Rubbia  presented the basic concept of the Fast Energy Amplifier, a sub critical nuclear system based on the U-Th fuel cycle, imbibed in melted lead coolant , with an external source of neutrons coming from spallation in Pb induced by protons from a 3-stage cyclotron 1 GeV, Later on, several experiments were conducted at CERN and several reports were published with some variants from Rubbia's idea. Figure 1 illustrates the basic concept of the Rubbia Fast Energy Amplifier. The world status is going to be presented by countries, or international organizations:.
The facility will be used in material's research, radioisotope production Mo , proton therapy, and studies of spallation-induced transmutation of long-lived nuclides. The total energy will not exceed 30 MWth, and the fast flux 1. The spallation source will be a windowless liquid lead-bismuth target surrounded by a fast and a thermal subcritical units.
The proposal of a program is present in this work involving the nuclear physics and engineering communities, similarly to the Belgian program. China: Presently a multipurpose system consisting of a low energy accelerator and a sub-critical facility pool is underway.
Also accelerator technology development is being conducted by China aiming at a high energy proton accelerator. A project LA-0 is proposed for testing a modular sub-critical assemblies with fluoride salts on the experimental reactor LR France is participating in several European experiments. The concept is based on a sub critical core with thermal power of MW. The thermal hydraulic loop CIRCE, a large facility for metal technology is being used for full scale demonstration of the critical components of the spallation targets.
The Program includes studies of the physical and chemical properties of MA and LLFF; partition of radioactive elements from high level liquid waste of reprocessing process, and ADS transmutation nuclear and fuel properties data of MA, system design studies, reactor fuel and accelerator target development, development of a high power accelerator, 1.
Russia has a large experience and facilities using accelerators and liquid metals Pb , mainly from its nuclear submarines program, which can be used in research related with ADS. The Svedlberg Laboratory at Uppsala has recently started a project for cross section measurements of interest for ADS. PSI operates one of the largest cyclotron facilities MeV, 1.
The fuel fabrication and the fuel cycle rely on pyro metallurgical processing. This program has been funded within the European Frame Work Program. The Brazilian Navy develops a nuclear program for nuclear propulsion which includes all the front end of the fuel cycle including the enrichment by ultracentrifuge that is being transferred to the industrial sector INB.
Radio Isotopes , as well as to develop new technologies. Brazilian science, being developed mainly at Universities, already produces a significant contribution to the human scientific knowledge and is forming thousands of Ph. In spite of such scientific potential, although with exceptions e. In particular, the physics developed by Brazil is traditional and outstanding even by first world standards, by the number of publications in international journals, scientific citations, number and quality of scientists.
However, Nuclear Physics needs, besides good brains, big machines such as accelerators, to be competitive with the physics being developed all over the world, although with international cooperation a good level of work is being produced. This scenario calls for a program which identifies synergies, society needs, be in consonance with the international science and technology, have sustainability, be adequate to the Brazilian reality, and give an umbrella for the activities already underway in Nuclear Physics and Engineering, and preserve the identities and focus of the involved parts.
Of course, to develop such a program relying only on ADS, is out of question, since the Brazilian society has another set of priorities in the short and medium time scales, and it could be done through international cooperation. As a consequence, the nuclear community must find a new approach to continue its activities, attract new talents and, mainly, get governmental support.
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Of course they need to be identified. In preliminary meetings between IPEN and IFUSP, both organizations hae converged to a program which employs accelerators in research basic or applied , products and services radioisotope production, irradiation for industrial applications , and in energy generation and transmutation ADS. The long range idea is to define a proton accelerator cyclotron or linac , with beams dedicated to these applications, and to have an experimental facility for accelerator applications.
CNE2 - Glossary
Of course, it would be out of the Brazilian reality to think of an extremely powerful machine, but following the Belgium example, consider an accelerator in the range of MeV, a few mA , powers of MW. Notice that this proposal is in synergy with the fact that the only Brazilian Research Reactor, the IEA-R1 capable of some multipurpose applications, such as radioisotope production, is already almost fifty years old, and probably in the next years will need to be decommissioned. Thus the subcritical accelerator driven facility would be the replacement of the research reactor.
The construction of such facilities will allow the development of the technology of nuclear waste transmutation without constructing an expensive industrial scale subcritical reactor. The low-cost neutron generator can serve as a driver for such research subcritical reactors.
MEGAPIE leads the way to waste transmutation
A two-zone model of subcritical system driven by high-intensity neutron generator is proposed in this work. The proposed system can use two separated cores with different neutron spectra: fast and thermal. This paper also represents the main stages of the proposed model of two-zone subcritical reactor development. The results of simulations, aimed at optimizing of the geometry and fuel composition of the two-zone subcritical system, performed in Serpent and MCNP codes are presented. An overview of the analysis of different facilities that can be used as an external neutron source for subcritical reactor is shown, however a high-intensity neutron generator based on D-T reaction was chosen as the optimal neutron source for low-cost research subcritical reactor for investigation of nuclear waste transmutation.
Generally, it is observed that the two-zone subcritical system can effectively amplify neutron flux from external neutron sources.
Introduction to Nuclear Waste
Keywords : Accelerator Driven Systems, subcritical system, transmutation of nuclear waste, optimization of subcritical core. Status report. Vienna: IAEA, , p. Salvatores M. Taczanowski S. Applied Energy, vol.
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