Rather than being fully allegorical, however, a poem may contain symbols or allusions that deepen the meaning or effect of its words without constructing a full allegory. Another element of poetic diction can be the use of vivid imagery for effect. The juxtaposition of unexpected or impossible images is, for example, a particularly strong element in surrealist poetry and haiku. Many poetic dictions use repetitive phrases for effect, either a short phrase such as Homer's "rosy-fingered dawn" or "the wine-dark sea" or a longer refrain. Such repetition can add a somber tone to a poem, or can be laced with irony as the context of the words changes.
Specific poetic forms have been developed by many cultures.
In more developed, closed or "received" poetic forms, the rhyming scheme, meter and other elements of a poem are based on sets of rules, ranging from the relatively loose rules that govern the construction of an elegy to the highly formalized structure of the ghazal or villanelle. Additional forms of poetry may be found in the discussions of the poetry of particular cultures or periods and in the glossary. Among the most common forms of poetry, popular from the Late Middle Ages on, is the sonnet, which by the 13th century had become standardized as fourteen lines following a set rhyme scheme and logical structure.
By the 14th century and the Italian Renaissance , the form had further crystallized under the pen of Petrarch , whose sonnets were translated in the 16th century by Sir Thomas Wyatt , who is credited with introducing the sonnet form into English literature. By convention, sonnets in English typically use iambic pentameter , while in the Romance languages , the hendecasyllable and Alexandrine are the most widely used meters.
Sonnets of all types often make use of a volta , or "turn," a point in the poem at which an idea is turned on its head, a question is answered or introduced , or the subject matter is further complicated. This volta can often take the form of a "but" statement contradicting or complicating the content of the earlier lines.
A Linguistic History of English Poetry
In the Petrarchan sonnet, the turn tends to fall around the division between the first two quatrains and the sestet, while English sonnets usually place it at or near the beginning of the closing couplet. Sonnets are particularly associated with high poetic diction, vivid imagery, and romantic love, largely due to the influence of Petrarch as well as of early English practitioners such as Edmund Spenser who gave his name to the Spenserian sonnet , Michael Drayton , and Shakespeare, whose sonnets are among the most famous in English poetry, with twenty being included in the Oxford Book of English Verse.
Further, postmodern authors such as Ted Berrigan and John Berryman have challenged the traditional definitions of the sonnet form, rendering entire sequences of "sonnets" that often lack rhyme, a clear logical progression, or even a consistent count of fourteen lines. In all cases, rhyming is obligatory. The Yuefu is a folk ballad or a poem written in the folk ballad style, and the number of lines and the length of the lines could be irregular.
For the other variations of shi poetry, generally either a four line quatrain, or jueju or else an eight-line poem is normal; either way with the even numbered lines rhyming. The line length is scanned by an according number of characters according to the convention that one character equals one syllable , and are predominantly either five or seven characters long, with a caesura before the final three syllables.
The lines are generally end-stopped, considered as a series of couplets, and exhibit verbal parallelism as a key poetic device.
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Among its other rules, the jintishi rules regulate the tonal variations within a poem, including the use of set patterns of the four tones of Middle Chinese. The basic form of jintishi sushi has eight lines in four couplets, with parallelism between the lines in the second and third couplets. The couplets with parallel lines contain contrasting content but an identical grammatical relationship between words.
Jintishi often have a rich poetic diction, full of allusion , and can have a wide range of subject, including history and politics. The villanelle is a nineteen-line poem made up of five triplets with a closing quatrain; the poem is characterized by having two refrains, initially used in the first and third lines of the first stanza, and then alternately used at the close of each subsequent stanza until the final quatrain, which is concluded by the two refrains.
The remaining lines of the poem have an a-b alternating rhyme. Auden ,  and Elizabeth Bishop. A limerick is a poem that consists of five lines and is often humorous. Rhythm is very important in limericks for the first, second and fifth lines must have seven to ten syllables.
A Linguistic History of English Poetry (Interface)
However, the third and fourth lines only need five to seven. All of the lines must rhyme and have the same rhythm. Tanka is a form of unrhymed Japanese poetry , with five sections totalling 31 onji phonological units identical to morae , structured in a pattern. Tanka were written as early as the Asuka period by such poets as Kakinomoto no Hitomaro fl. By the tenth century, tanka had become the dominant form of Japanese poetry, to the point where the originally general term waka "Japanese poetry" came to be used exclusively for tanka. Tanka are still widely written today.
Haiku is a popular form of unrhymed Japanese poetry, which evolved in the 17th century from the hokku , or opening verse of a renku. Traditionally, haiku contain a kireji , or cutting word, usually placed at the end of one of the poem's three sections, and a kigo , or season-word. An example of his writing: . This was likely derived from when the Thai language had three tones as opposed to today's five, a split which occurred during the Ayutthaya Kingdom period , two of which corresponded directly to the aforementioned marks.
It is usually regarded as an advanced and sophisticated poetic form. The two differ in the number of syllables in the second wak of the final bat and inter-stanza rhyming rules. It has four bat per stanza si translates as four.
The first wak of each bat has five syllables. The second wak has two or four syllables in the first and third bat , two syllables in the second, and four syllables in the fourth. Mai ek is required for seven syllables and Mai tho is required for four, as shown below. Odes were first developed by poets writing in ancient Greek, such as Pindar , and Latin, such as Horace. Forms of odes appear in many of the cultures that were influenced by the Greeks and Latins.
The antistrophes of the ode possess similar metrical structures and, depending on the tradition, similar rhyme structures.
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In contrast, the epode is written with a different scheme and structure. Odes have a formal poetic diction and generally deal with a serious subject. The strophe and antistrophe look at the subject from different, often conflicting, perspectives, with the epode moving to a higher level to either view or resolve the underlying issues.
Odes are often intended to be recited or sung by two choruses or individuals , with the first reciting the strophe, the second the antistrophe, and both together the epode. One non-Western form which resembles the ode is the qasida in Persian poetry. The ghazal also ghazel, gazel, gazal, or gozol is a form of poetry common in Arabic , Persian , Urdu and Bengali poetry. In classic form, the ghazal has from five to fifteen rhyming couplets that share a refrain at the end of the second line. This refrain may be of one or several syllables and is preceded by a rhyme.
Each line has an identical meter. The ghazal often reflects on a theme of unattainable love or divinity. As with other forms with a long history in many languages, many variations have been developed, including forms with a quasi-musical poetic diction in Urdu. The relatively steady meter and the use of the refrain produce an incantatory effect, which complements Sufi mystical themes well.
His life and poems have been the subject of much analysis, commentary and interpretation, influencing post-fourteenth century Persian writing more than any other author. In addition to specific forms of poems, poetry is often thought of in terms of different genres and subgenres. A poetic genre is generally a tradition or classification of poetry based on the subject matter, style, or other broader literary characteristics.
Others view the study of genres as the study of how different works relate and refer to other works. Narrative poetry is a genre of poetry that tells a story. Broadly it subsumes epic poetry , but the term "narrative poetry" is often reserved for smaller works, generally with more appeal to human interest. Narrative poetry may be the oldest type of poetry.
Many scholars of Homer have concluded that his Iliad and Odyssey were composed of compilations of shorter narrative poems that related individual episodes. Much narrative poetry—such as Scottish and English ballads , and Baltic and Slavic heroic poems—is performance poetry with roots in a preliterate oral tradition. It has been speculated that some features that distinguish poetry from prose, such as meter, alliteration and kennings , once served as memory aids for bards who recited traditional tales.
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Lyric poetry is a genre that, unlike epic and dramatic poetry, does not attempt to tell a story but instead is of a more personal nature. Poems in this genre tend to be shorter, melodic, and contemplative. Rather than depicting characters and actions, it portrays the poet's own feelings , states of mind , and perceptions.
Vincent Millay. Epic poetry is a genre of poetry, and a major form of narrative literature. This genre is often defined as lengthy poems concerning events of a heroic or important nature to the culture of the time. It recounts, in a continuous narrative, the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons. While the composition of epic poetry, and of long poems generally, became less common in the west after the early 20th century, some notable epics have continued to be written.http://speedtest3.bladewp.com/how-to-tracking-smartphone-galaxy-a60.php
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Derek Walcott won a Nobel prize to a great extent on the basis of his epic, Omeros. Poetry can be a powerful vehicle for satire. The Romans had a strong tradition of satirical poetry, often written for political purposes. A notable example is the Roman poet Juvenal 's satires.
The same is true of the English satirical tradition. An elegy is a mournful, melancholy or plaintive poem, especially a lament for the dead or a funeral song. The term "elegy," which originally denoted a type of poetic meter elegiac meter , commonly describes a poem of mourning. An elegy may also reflect something that seems to the author to be strange or mysterious. The elegy, as a reflection on a death, on a sorrow more generally, or on something mysterious, may be classified as a form of lyric poetry.
The fable is an ancient literary genre , often though not invariably set in verse. It is a succinct story that features anthropomorphized animals, plants, inanimate objects, or forces of nature that illustrate a moral lesson a " moral ".