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Advances in Potato Chemistry and Technology
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Opens image gallery Image not available Photos not available for this variation. Learn more - opens in new window or tab Seller information second. See all second. An error occurred, please try again. Blend the tubers and water for 45 seconds. The reading on the instrument is the free glucose designated as Glucose 1. Transfer 3 ml of the filtrate 4 above into a 56 ml polystyrene micro beaker YSI Add 2 ml invertase enzyme Sigma to the filtrate in the micro beaker and thoroughly mix. Hold the mixture in 8 above at room temperature for 30 minutes to complete the hydrolysis of the sucrose to glucose.
The reading obtained is the total free glucose as in 6 above and the glucose produced by sucrose hydrolysis as in 8 above is designated glucose 2. The tubers are then separated by shaking the tubers from the vines and separating the soil from the tubers as they are conveyed through the machine.
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Bruising is without doubt the second most important factor when working with potatoes for the chip market. Bruises developed during harvesting, handling and storage of tubers create a great loss of raw product. There are 4 factors that are believed significant in influencing bruises in potatoes, that is, soil condition at time of harvest, tuber condition, temperature, and the operation of the harvester. Heavy dry soils form clods which increase the damage to tubers while inside the harvester.
Of course, soils with stones present will also bruise the tubers during harvesting. Tuber condition is of direct concern and may involve delaying harvest after vine killing to allow the tubers to better set their skin. Large tubers bruise more easily than small tubers. Further, high specific gravity tubers appear to bruise more easily than those with lower specific gravities.
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Tuber bruising is one of the most serious problems facing the producer and the processor. Skinningis probably one of the easiest type of bruise to eliminate. Tubers should only be handled when they are completely mature. Top killers should be used 2 weeks prior to harvest to allow the tuber to mature.
To prevent shatter bruise cracks or splits on the tuber surface that penetrates the flesh and black spot dark semispherical spot in the flesh beneath the hard tuber surface development, tubers should never be handled when the temperature is below 45 degree F. Preferably, tubers should only be handled when the temperature is above 55 degree F. These tubers develop softened, flattened or indented areas as a result of continuous pressure. They may discolor the flesh of the tuber which shows up after processing as gray areas. Bruises can be detected by using the catechol test.
Catechol is a polyphenol compound that reacts with the naturally present enzymes in the tuber and turns the damaged flesh dark. The test is of value to the harvester operator and the handler to know if damage is being done with their system of harvesting and handling. Bruised potatoes are not desired by the industry and it behooves operators to learn to do things correctly to eliminate this severe appearance problem and loss to the producer and the processor.
The movement of the harvester chains, that is, the speed of the chain, the prevention of tuber roll back, and the elimination of tuber drops are all factors of the operation of the harvester that may affect bruising of tubers during digging. Harvester speed and adjustments must be made depending upon the local conditions. Excessive drops and roll down in handling the tubers lead to skinning and ultimate bruising of the tubers.
Rubberized padding is a must to prevent bruising. A layer of suberin or periderm can develop in less than 48 hours with 3 layers in six to seven days. It is essential that the periderm be formed to prevent rot or microorganism penetration. After the wounds are healed, the temperature may be gradually lowered to the desired storage temperature.
Advances In Potato Chemistry And Technology
This is determined by the variety of tubers in use and the length of the storage period. The temperature should be low enough to allow the tuber to go into its rest stage to prevent weight loss and excessive peel loss at time of use. Tubers can be stored for up to 10 months if storage conditions are right, that is, temperature and relative humidity are provided, regulated, and maintained through the use of correct airflow to provide proper ventilation and complete air distribution throughout the storage pile.
If sprouting does occur there is an increase in loss of moisture and pronounced shriveling of the tubers causing difficulty in peeling of the tubers. Low temperatures require the use of cultivars that are fully mature and cultivars that do not accumulate reducing sugars. These cultivars, hopefully, will have a long dormant cycle. As a n alternative to low temperature storage, tubers may be treated with sprout inhibitors. Several chemicals have been used as sprout inhibitors. The most common chemical is Chloro IPC isoprophyl N-chlorophenyl carbamate for treating only suberized tubers for long term storage.