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Turkey has a non-resident ambassador in Caracas , Venezuela.

The Barbadian Government does not have foreign accreditation for Turkey. Barbados and Turkey formally established joint diplomatic relations on 20 September Brazil has an embassy in Ankara. Canada has an embassy in Ankara.

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Turkey has an embassy in Ottawa. The recognition of the Armenian Genocide by the Canadian parliament has soured relations between the two countries. Diplomatic relations were established on April in New York City. Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 April Since , Turkey is represented in Saint Vincent and the Grenadines by its embassy in Havana and since an honorary consulate in Kingstown.

Turkey is represented in Trinidad and Tobago by its embassy in Caracas. Friendship between Turkey and the United States dates to the late 19th century, when Turkey was part of the Ottoman Empire , and was officially sealed by a treaty in The close relationship between the modern Republic of Turkey and the United States began with the Second Cairo Conference on 4—6 December , and the agreement of 12 July which implemented the Truman Doctrine.

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  • Turkey participated with the United States during the Korean War of the early s, providing active military support to the U. During the Gulf War of , the Turkish Armed Forces contributed to the coalition forces, and Turkey supported the initiatives of the U. Following its membership in , Turkey became the bulwark of NATO 's southeastern flank, directly bordering Warsaw Pact countries and risking nuclear war on its soil during the Cuban missile crisis. In the post Cold War environment, though still committed to its close relations with Washington, Turkey became a more independent actor.

    A government motion to allow U. This led to a cooling in relations between the U. President George W. Bush stated that he did not believe it's in Turkey's interests to send troops into Iraq. The U. In , the two countries indicated their joint intent to upgrade bilateral economic relations by launching an Economic Partnership Commission.

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    In , Turkish exports to the U. He is said to be "isolated", and that his MPs and Ministers feel "fearful of Erdogan's wrath". He rejects the allegations of having "eight secret accounts in Swiss banks," stating that the people responsible for the leaks will "be crushed under these claims, will be finished and will disappear. In December , U. McMaster said that Turkey had joined Qatar as a prime source of funding that contributes to the spread of extremist ideology of Islamism : "We're seeing great involvement by Turkey from everywhere from western Africa to Southeast Asia," funding groups that help create the conditions that allow terrorism to flourish.

    Turkey has strong cultural and linguistic ties with the predominantly Turkic nations of Central Asia since Turks originated in Central Asia themselves. Economic and political relations are developing rapidly, and are likely to grow even more quickly with Turkey's recent elimination of visa requirements for citizens of the Central Asian Turkic republics.

    Turkey is even working on developing solid relations with the other nations of the region, namely Afghanistan and Tajikistan. In this period, Turkey shifted increasingly towards the West, while culturally and ideologically distancing itself from the conservative mindset, practices and traditions of the Middle East, which were regarded by the Turkish revolutionaries as the source of the backwardness that had caused the Ottoman Empire to collapse. Islamists look at the secular state which buried the caliphate and think 'betrayal'; and Arab nationalists still haven't forgotten that Turks are their former colonial rulers.

    The former Soviet republics in the South Caucasus Armenia , Azerbaijan, and Georgia are important for Turkey politically, economically, socially and culturally. The government develops policies in this region taking into account its strategic importance, due to its energy resources and pipeline corridors, and collaborates with its South Caucus neighbours in the BSEC , the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the Council of Europe. Afghanistan—Turkey relations have always been warm due to strong ethnic and historical links between the two modern states. Afghanistan was the second country to recognize the Republic of Turkey, after the Soviet Union , establishing diplomatic contacts whilst the Turkish War of Independence was still being waged.

    The PKK Conflict in the Context of EU-Turkey Relations

    Turkey has participated in the International Security Assistance Force ISAF since its inception in and is responsible for maintaining security around Kabul, providing training for the Afghan National Army and Afghan National Police and has undertaken a number of reconstruction projects in the fields of education, health and agriculture in the province of Vardak. Armenia-Turkey relations have long been strained by a number of historical-political issues including Turkish dispute of the Armenian Genocide during World War I.

    To this day, Turkey does not awknowledge the events of Syrma on , and fails to call their actions Genocide, the mass killings of a certain ethnicity or group of people based on their religious or cultural beliefs. Armenian-Turkish borders, along with Azerbaijan, have remained closed off of the fact of the Armenian Genocide. Turkey's indirect support for Azerbaijan in the Nagorno Karabakh War , as well as in potential border disputes between Azerbaijan and Armenia, was an issue in the s. Currently, there are no formal diplomatic relations between the two modern states.

    Turkey recognized the state of Armenia soon after its independence, but formal diplomatic relations were not established. Armenia still demands the return of their culturally stained lands, that were once filled with Armenian inhabitants and monasteries, which are now Turkish mosques. The United States has also failed to recognize the events as Genocide because of Turkish-American relations. In the wake of the murder of Turkish Armenian intellectual Hrant Dink by a Turkish gunman, and the ensuing scandal in which his killer was pictured while holding up a Turkish flag, flanked by smiling government employees, [79] tens of thousands of Turkish citizens marched throughout the country in protest in support of Dink.

    Armenia suspended the ratification process, citing preconditions set forth by Turkey. Azerbaijan-Turkey relations have always been strong with the two often being described as "one nation with two states" due to a common culture, history, ethnicity, and the mutual intelligibility of Turkish and Azerbaijani. Turkey has been a staunch supporter of Azerbaijan in its efforts to consolidate its independence, preserve its territorial integrity and realize its economic potential arising from the rich natural resources of the Caspian Sea.

    Today, the relationship with Azerbaijan represents the "most important bilateral partnership" in current Turkish foreign policy while Azerbaijan foreign policy affirms its relationship with Turkey as one of its most enduring bilateral relationships, as evidenced in aligned political affairs, mutual cooperation in the areas of trade, commerce, finance, technology, diaspora, academics, as well as the arts and sciences; the sharing of government and military intelligence, and joint combat operations and peacekeeping missions carried out between Azerbaijani Armed Forces and Turkish Armed Forces.

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    Relations have been excellent since Turkey recognised Bangladesh in , soon after independence. The trade volume between the two countries has grown as did Bangladeshi exports and has been in Bangladesh's favor throughout their economic relationship. Bangladesh was one of the only six countries to support the Turkish invasion of Cyprus during a UN vote on the matter. On the issue of Cyprus, Bangladesh at multilateral organisations such as the UN, use this as an opportunity to defend the rights of the Turkish community.

    They also supported the creation of the Developing 8 Countries with six other nations with large Muslim populations. However, when Turkish President Abdullah Gul wrote a letter [86] to Bangladesh President Zillur Rahman requesting year-old Islamic leader not to be executed Bangladesh government became angry. Turkey recognized the PRC on 5 August Turkey has an embassy in Beijing and two consulates—general in Hong Kong and Shanghai.


    The relations have been generally close despite the China's conflicts with Turkic Uyghur separatists. In recent years, regional and global cooperation between the two countries have also been growing, with both sides seeking for closer ties. Turkey is represented in Timor by its embassy in Jakarta. Turkey has a close partnership relations with Georgia. Turkey views the Abkhazian and South Ossetian conflicts as a potential danger to peace and stability in the entire region.

    The resolution of these problems is essential for the preservation of peace and stability in the area. Turkey has shown a readiness to be a negotiator for the Abkhazian conflict. Despite its close supportive bond with its geopolitical rival, Pakistan, Turkey's relations with India have always been generally friendly and stable, though at certain times cold.

    The two nations have been in contact with each other since the early times of the Ottoman Empire ; Turkey and India work closely with each other to fight cultural terrorism in the Middle East, Central , and South Asia. India was also one of many countries to recognize the newly independent Turkey and send political aid to combat the subsequent poverty and benefit the war effort. Indonesia has an embassy in Ankara. Turkey has an embassy in Jakarta. Relations between both nations have essentially been peaceful since There are an estimated 12 to 21 million Turkic peoples in Iran Iranian Turks such as Azeris and Turkmens who mostly live in the northern regions of the country.

    However, a period of coldness in bilateral relations existed following the Iranian Revolution due to the conflicting ideologies of secular Turkey and theocratic Iran. Today, Iran and Turkey cooperate in a wide variety of fields that range from fighting terrorism and drug trafficking, and promoting stability in Iraq and Central Asia.

    Both countries have strongly advocated Iraqi territorial integrity since the beginning of the Iraqi invasion. Turkey receives a significant number of Iranian tourists every year, [] [] while Iran is a major natural gas supplier of Turkey. Turkish construction companies have undertaken important projects in Iran, such as the new Imam Khomeini International Airport in Tehran.

    Facing strong domestic opposition in Turkey, a government motion to allow U.

    [Reviews] Turkey and the European Union: prospects for a difficult encounter

    A primary concern for Turkey was an independent Kurdish state arising from a destabilised Iraq; it has previously fought an insurgent war on its own soil, in which an estimated 37, people lost their lives, against the PKK listed as a terrorist organization by a number of states and organisations , including the U. The United States' reluctance to threaten the relative stability of northern Iraq by launching operations against the PKK led the Turkish Parliament to authorise a cross border military operation in Current relations with Kurdistan Region are good, which is important to help prevent a restart of the Kurdish—Turkish conflict and to diversify Turkey's energy sources.

    Turkey was the first country with a Muslim majority to formally recognize the State of Israel, on 28 March ; before Israel was admitted to the United Nations on 11 May The later record of warm relations in the 19th century, when the British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli , himself of Jewish origin, supported the Ottoman Empire in numerous disputes, particularly in the Berlin Congress of During the s and s, the Republic of Turkey again served as a safe haven for the European Jewish refugees fleeing the Nazi -perpetrated Holocaust.

    Another diplomat, Necdet Kent , also rescued Jews from Nazi authorities, for which he was awarded a special medal by the government of the State of Israel. During the late 20th century, Israel has been a major supplier of arms to Turkey. Military, strategic, and diplomatic cooperation between Turkey and Israel is accorded very high priority by the governments of both countries, which share concerns with respect to the regional instabilities in the Middle East.

    Turkey also provided its large air space something Israel lacks to the jets of the Israeli Air Force for training purposes, particularly the area around the Konya Air Base in central Anatolia. There was a plan to build a massive pipeline from Turkey to supply water, electricity, gas and oil to Israel. In the beginning of , the Israeli Foreign Ministry characterized its relations with Turkey as "perfect". However, in February , a visit paid by Khaled Meshal , leader of the newly elected Hamas , changed this status.

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    • Some have suggested that this was only a public relations stunt to show the Islamic world that Turkey was on their side because Turkey had been silent in major issues important to Arabs and the Islamic community such as the Israeli—Palestinian conflict and the Lebanon crisis. New tensions arose in Turkish—Israeli relations during the — Israel—Gaza conflict.

      Turkey's Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan became among the most outspoken critics of Israel's conduct in the war, referring to its military operations as a "crime against humanity". Relations suffered a further blow when during the World Economic Forum in Davos at 29 January , when Prime Minister Erdogan walked out of the forum in protest, frustrated that he had not been given enough time to reply to Israeli President Shimon Peres. Erdogan harshly criticized the President, stating Israel knew "very well how to kill".

      Turkey recognized Kazakhstan on 16 December , on the same day Kazakhstan declared its independence. Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on 2 March These relations have developed positively on the international stage as well as in commerce and strategic affairs. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Turkey describes the current relations at "outstanding levels".

      The two countries have recently signed fifteen agreements for cooperation in tourism, health, environment, economy, commercial exchange and oil. We share the conviction that we attach great importance to the stability of Afghanistan in particular and that we should provide all sorts of assistance regarding this issue. We have felt at home in our ancestral homeland while we have been in Kyrgyzstan," and added, in a speech to the Jogorku Kenesh , that, "You are being represented in Europe through us, and were being represented in the Commonwealth of Independent States through you.

      I believe that this is important. Turkey is one of Kyrgyzstan's major trade partners.